Temporo-mandibular Joint Disorders

Introduction Temporomandibular Joint disorders can be grouped under the following conditions: Temporo-Mandibular Joint (TMJ) pain dysfunction syndrome Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Trauma. Developmental defects Ankylosis Infection Neoplasia TMJ pain dysfunction syndrome The most common problem in or around the TMJ Clinical features and symptoms of Temporo-mandibular Joint Disorders Equal frequency between genders, but five times as … Read more

Neoplasms of the salivary gland treatment guideline

Introduction Neoplasms of the salivary gland is the next most common neoplasms of the mouth after squamous cell carcinomas [PSI]. Above 70% develop in the parotid gland Over three-quarters are benign Women are slightly more frequently affected Classification The modified WHO classification (1972) includes: Epithelial tumours Adenomas: Pleomorphic adenoma (‘mixed tumour’) Monomorphic adenomas Warthin’s tumour, … Read more


What is Mumps? Mumps is a painful non-erythematous swelling of one or both parotid glands, occurring 1 – 2 weeks following exposure to the causative virus. Epidemiology Most common in children aged 6-8 years with epidemics occurring during winter and spring, before the onset of routine vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. Symptoms of mumps … Read more

Salivary gland diseases

Introduction Salivary gland diseases are a wide spectrum of disorders. Examples of them include mumps, Xerostomia, Sialadenitis, Neoplasms of the salivary gland and Sjogren’s syndrome. They are diseases due to: Obstruction Salivary calculi Parotid papilla and duct strictures Salivary fistulae Mucoceles and cysts Ranula 1. Sialadenitis Sialadenitisis an acute infection and inflammation of the salivary … Read more


What is pulpitis? Pulpitis is an inflammation of the dental pulp. It is the single most important disease process affecting the dental pulp. It accounts for virtually all pulpal disease of any clinical significance. Symptoms of pulpitis Pain which is difficult to localize The pain may radiate to the adjacent jaw and occasionally to the face, … Read more

Juvenile periodontitis

What is Juvenile Periodontitis? Juvenile periodontitis is an uncommon condition characterized by severe loss of attachment and destruction of alveolar bone around one or more permanent teeth in otherwise healthy adolescent. This happens often in the absence of overt gingival inflammation. Epidemiology Prevalence rate of this case is 1:1000; occurrence in male is equivalent to … Read more


What is Periodontitis? Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition of the periodontium: periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone, gingivae. Classification of Periodontitis Acute periodontitis Chronic periodontitis Juvenile periodontitis Other sub-classifications 1. Acute periodontitis:  This type is relatively uncommon It is usually of of short duration It may be due to trauma, abscess or ulceration It is characterized … Read more


What is Pericoronitis? Pericoronitis is an inflammatory condition of the operculum or gum flap around a partially erupted/impacted tooth. It is common around the lower last molars or wisdom teeth. Upper canine may also be affected. Classification of Pericoronitis Pericoronitis can be classified into: Subacute Acute Chronic Acute-on-chronic Causes of Pericoronitis Mixed microbial infection Food … Read more

Oral Thrush (Oral Candidiasis)

Introduction Oral Thrush (Candidiasis) is a clinical infection of mucous membranes due to the fungus species Candida. Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated strain. Classification of oral thrush Acute oral candidasis Chronic oral candidasis Denture association candidasis/ denture stomatitis Pathogenesis of oral thrush Immunosupression results in the Candida albicans (a normal oral commensal) becoming … Read more

Plaque induced gingivitis

What is plaque induced gingivitis? Plaque-induced Gingivitis is an inflammatory response of the gingivae to plaque bacteria. The most common type of this is chronic marginal gingivitis. Symptoms and clinical features of gingivitis Chronic gingivitis is asymptomatic, low-grade inflammation of the gingivae Gums become red slightly swollen and bleed on slight touch Treatment for plaque … Read more