Wax in the Ear

Introduction Wax (or cerumen) is a normal product of the human external ear. It is a dark brownish mixture of the secretions of the ceruminous and sebaceous glands in the outer third of the external auditory canal. Small quantities are produced continuously and function to lubricate the canal. Quantities produced and the consistencies vary. It … Read more


Introduction Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure in which an opening is created into the trachea from the outside, commonly to bypass an upper respiratory obstruction. It may also be done to provide easier access for care of the chest in some seriously ill patients. In addition, it is equally done for respiratory support and artificial … Read more


Introduction Tonsillitis is an inflammatory condition of the palatine tonsils; it is common in children. Half or more cases of the infection is caused by beta haemolytic streptococcus. Some are of viral origin. Tonsillitis is typically an acute infection. Chronic tonsillitis presents usually as recurrent acute infection. It is essentially a disease of children but … Read more


Introduction Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses. It  may be acute or chronic and affect one or more of the sinuses, most commonly the maxillary sinus or antrum (in very young children the ethmoidal sinuses). Acute sinusitis is often sequel to acute rhinitis. Common causative organisms are streptococcus, pneumococcus, … Read more

Pharyngitis (Sore Throat)

Introduction Pharyngitis which is commonly known as sore throat is an inflammation of the pharynx, resulting in a sore throat. It is a common cause of persistent sore throat in young and most middle-aged adults, usually unaccompanied by other symptoms. It is often secondary to chronic nasal conditions with nasal obstruction e.g. Vasomotor rhinitis Nasal … Read more

Peritonsillar abscess (Quinsy)

Introduction Peritonsillar abscess is the main common local complication of acute tonsillitis in which the infection spreads behind the tonsils. It is a virulent streptococcal infection; it may spread beyond the tonsillar capsule into the peri-tonsillar space, causing, first cellulitis,  and later suppuration in the space. It is more common in adults with tonsillitis. Symptoms … Read more

Otitis externa

Introduction Otitis externa also called swimmers’ ear is an inflammation of the external ear It may be: Infective: bacteria or fungi Reaction of the canal skin to chemical irritant(s) Part of a generalized dermatitis Localised otitis externa or furuncle (boil) is a Staphylococcal infection of a hair follicle in the canal. Diffuse otitis externa may … Read more

Nasal Allergy (Nasal Rhinitis)

Introduction Nasal allergy otherwise known as Nasal Rhinitis is an allergic response causing itchy, watery eyes, sneezing and other similar symptoms. It is a hypersensitivity of the nasal mucosa to various foreign substances, of the atopic type. It manifests as recurrent episodes of sneezing, rhinorrhoea and nasal obstruction whenever a patient comes in contact with … Read more


Introduction Mastoiditis is an infection that affects the mastoid bone, located behind the ear. It develops as a complication of acute suppurative otitis media, mostly in children. This follows acute otitis media (untreated or inadequately treated), or due to particularly virulent organisms. Infection spreads from the tympanum posteriorly into the mastoid antrum and air cells. … Read more

Foreign Bodies In The Nose And Rhinoliths

Introduction Children often insert various objects into the nostrils while playing including pieces of plastic toys, rolled paper, foam, seeds, some metal objects, etc. The objects may remain undetected for long periods, particularly organic items, until they become infected. Typically result in foul smelling unilateral nasal discharge. Some inorganic objects may (after long periods) become … Read more