Foreign Bodies in the Ear

Introduction This is a common presentation in ENT emergency practice. Children are usually involved as they insert various objects into their ears while playing: including beads, plastic toys, seeds, etc Live insects may also crawl into the ear in adults/children Clinical features Symptoms are often absent Little pain (sometimes) Sensation of blockage may be reported … Read more

Foreign Body Impaction

Introduction Food and a variety of other swallowed objects can become impacted in the pharynx or upper esophagus. In children, these objects apart from food can be play objects, toy pieces, coins, safety pins; fish bones, poorly chewed meat, dentures mainly in adults. Sharp objects may be arrested in the oropharynx, most others at the … Read more

Foreign Bodies in the Airways

Introduction Children (most commonly) may aspirate pieces of play objects or food items accidentally into the airway. This may present as serious emergencies with imminent asphyxia. The object if arrested at laryngeal level causes acute upper respiratory obstruction. Sharp objects such as fish bone or pins may be impacted on the vocal cord and the … Read more


Introduction Epistaxis is a condition of bleeding from the nose. It is a clinical presentation rather than a disease entity on its own. Bleeding is most often from ruptured vessels in the anterior nasal septum, sometimes from the posterior nose especially in the elderly. Epistaxis can arise from a wide variety of causes Local (in … Read more

Chronic Otitis Media

Introduction Chronic otitis media is a chronic inflammatory condition of the middle ear mucosa with recurrent ear discharge often over a period of years. It occurs in two clinical varieties The more common simple type with a central eardrum perforation The much less common, serious type often associated with the presence of cholesteatoma Bacteriology is … Read more

Adenoid disease

Introduction Adenoid Disease is a manifestation of hyperplasia/hypertrophy of the adenoid tissue in the nasopharynx. It usually occurs in children aged 2-6 years. Excessively large adenoids may cause obstruction of the nasopharyngeal airway with symptoms of nasal obstruction. Large adenoids may encroach on the Eustachian tube openings causing secretory otitis media with deafness in the … Read more

Acute Otitis Media

Introduction Acute Otitis Media is an acute inflammation of the middle ear due to¬† pyogenic organisms. It is usually secondary to upper respiratory tract infection spreading from nasopharynx. It is common in infants and young children; and more frequent during winter and rainy periods. The usual causative organisms are streptococcus pneumococcus and staphylococcus. Symptoms and … Read more