Wilms tumour

Introduction Wilms tumour (nephroblastoma) is a malignant embryonal tumour of renal tissue. About 80% of children with Wilms tumour present before 5 years of age. It can present soon after delivery. It may be associated with congenital anomalies such as hemihypertrophy and the absence of the iris (aniridia). Wilms tumour has a very good prognosis … Read more


Introduction Retinoblastoma is a congenital malignant tumour originating from the retina of the eye. This tumour may be hereditary, particularly the bilateral form which forms about 30% of cases. Most tumours however are sporadic (spontaneous mutation). This is the third commonest cancer seen amongst children in developing countries. Most children present before five years of … Read more


Introduction Strabismus is misalignment usually of one eye preventing simultaneous viewing of an object by both eyes. Onset in children under 7 years interferes with the development of the visual system of the deviating eye in the brain leading to amblyopia. Acute onset at an older age causes double vision. Diplopia does not occur in … Read more

Exposure Keratopathy

Introduction Exposure keratopathy is the drying of the cornea as a result of inability to close the eyelids or blink adequately. If not detected and treated, this condition can result in corneal ulceration and perforation leading to blindness. Causes of exposure keratopathy The following are the causes of EK: Facial nerve palsy e.g. Bell’s palsy … Read more


Introduction The term Xerophthalmia refers to the spectrum of progressive eye diseases under Vitamin A deficiency. It ranges from night blindness to conjunctival xerosis, to Bitot’s spots, corneal xerosis and finally keratomalacial Clinical features Night blindness Dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea (xerosis) Tearing Bitot’s spots Corneal degeneration (keratomalacia) Differential diagnosis Measles keratoconjunctivitis Complications Corneal … Read more


Introduction Trachoma is an infection of the eyes by a bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the leading preventable cause of blindness worldwide and very contagious. The organism is found in the conjunctival as well as corneal epithelium and is responsible for two different conditions: Trachoma (a severe disease) Inclusion conjunctivitis (milder) Trachoma is commonly associated … Read more

Stye (Hordeolum)

Introduction External stye External stye is an infection of the lash follicle and its associated gland of Zeis or Moll Internal stye (chalazion) This is an jnfection of the meibomian gland Clinical features Painful lump growing on the eyelid Red swollen area on the eyelid (like a boil) Pain in the affected area of the … Read more

Scleritis and Episcleritis

Introduction Episcleritis is an inflammation of the superficial, episcleral layer of the eye. It is relatively common, benign and self-limiting eye condition. On the other hand, scleritis is inflammation the sclera which the white portion of the eye. It is a serious eye disease that is often associated with underlying autoimmune disorders. To prevent blindness … Read more

Ophthalmia Neonatorum (Neonatal Conjunctivitis)

Introduction Ophthalmia Neonatorum is infection in both eyes of a newborn baby in the first one month of life, without obstruction of the nasolacrimal ducts. It is an acute emergency and requires immediate treatment and referral because of the significant risk of corneal perforation and intraocular infection that can lead to blindness. Clinical features Swollen … Read more

Infective Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye)

Introduction The commonest cause of a red eye is infective conjunctivitis, which could be caused by bacteria or viruses. Conjunctivitis occurs when the conjunctiva of the eye becomes inflamed. Clinical features Red eye (generalized) Eye discharge: purulent or catarrhal, worse on waking from sleep Eye discomfort: grittiness Photophobia: mild Swollen eyelids in ophthalmia neonatorum Aetiology … Read more