Introduction The glaucomas are a group of diseases in which there is gradual loss of vision (actually visual field) due to a form of optic neuropathy in which raised intraocular pressure is a risk factor. Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness worldwide and once a patient is blind from glaucoma, vision cannot be restored. … Read more

Foreign Bodies In The Eye

Introduction Foreign bodies are usually in the form of small particles of metal, vegetable matter or insects which embed on surface of the eye. Occasionally a high velocity material, usually a metal could be propelled into the eye. Clinical features Foreign body may be embedded on the tarsal conjunctiva, bulbar conjunctiva, and cornea or inside … Read more

Eye Injuries

Introduction Eye injury is a broad term used to describe a physical or chemical wound to the eye or eye socket. Injuries to the eye could be caused by blunt or sharp objects or chemicals Aetiology Blunt injuries e.g. a fist or a ball hitting the eye Sharp injuries e.g. glass, metal, broom sticketc Chemicals … Read more


Introduction Cataract is the opacification or clouding of the crystalline lens. It is the commonest cause of blindness and low vision in the world. Aetiology Congenital e.g. Rubella, Toxoplasmosis. Developmental: Senile occurs with ageing Secondary e.g. Traumatic, Diabetic, Drug induced, post uveitic etc. Clinical features Gradual, painless loss of vision In the early stages, it … Read more

Allergic Conjunctivitis

Introduction Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the lining of the eye (conjunctiva) due to allergy. It could occur on its own or in association with generalized atopy (asthma, eczema, spring catarrh) Clinical features Itching of the eyes with grittiness May be associated with itchy ears throat, or sinusitis and Brownish discolouration of the conjunctiva Eyelid … Read more

Acute Keratitis

Introduction Acute Keratitis is an infection or inflammation of the cornea. It could be secondary to trauma to the cornea and is sometimes associated with infective¬†conjunctivitis but could occur de novo. Clinical features Irritation, pain Red eye (conjunctival congestion) Eye discharge: watery; purulent (if bacterial) Photophobia Visual impairment, depending on the site and size of … Read more

Acute Anterior Uveitis (Iritis)

Introduction Acute Anterior Uveitis (or Iritis) is an inflammation of the iris (with or without the cilliary body). It usually occurs without any associated systemic inflammation. Iritis tends to recur. Clinical features Blurring of vision Eyeball is tender Phoptophobia due to cilliary spasms. Flare and cells Keratic precipitates Exudation into anterior chamber Hypopion Posterior synechiae … Read more