Urine retention

What is urine retention? Urine retention is the inability to empty a full bladder. It is the commonest urological emergency worldwide. Adult males are more commonly affected by this condition. It is rare in children and in females. The causes differ in different age groups as well as in males and females. Risk factors for … Read more


What is Haematuria? Haematuria is the passage of blood in the urine. It may be microscopic or macroscopic, intermittent or continuous. The pattern of blood in the urine may be initial, terminal or frank/total. Blood in urine is a serious symptom and must always be fully investigated especially to exclude cancer. Certain drugs and food … Read more

Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate cancer Prostate cancer is any abnormal and uncontrollable prostate cells growth. Ninety-five per cent of these tumours are adenocarcinomas. The majority of men affected are aged between 65 and 85 years. The incidence increases with age. It is recommended that every male, 40 years and above, should have annual screening by Prostate … Read more

Bladder Cancer

Introduction Bladder cancer is the second commonest urological cancer after prostate cancer. It is the commonest of all the cancers, which affect the urinary tract lining (urothelium). Males are more affected than females in a ratio of about 3:1. It is more common in the white race compared to the black race in a ratio … Read more

Fournier’s gangrene

What is is a Fournier’s gangrene? Fournier’s Gangrene is an acute fulminant polymicrobial necrotising fascitis or gangrene affecting the scrotum and sometimes extending to the perineum, penis and lower abdomen. It is also called idiopathic gangrene of the scrotum. The synergistic infections of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria coupled with obliterative arteritis results in the extensive … Read more

Acute Epididymo-orchitis

Acute Epididymo-orchitis is an acute inflammation of the epididymis and testis usually due to a bacterial infection. It may follow ascending infection from the urethra (including STIS), instrumentation/catheterization, untreated lower urinary tract obstruction and genito-urinary surgery. It is a known complication of mumps. Poorly managed acute epididymo-orchitis may be complicated by septicaemia, abscess formation, chronic … Read more

Vasectomy (Male Sterilisation)

Introduction to Vasectomy (Male Sterilisation) Vasectomy (male sterilisation) is a permanent male contraceptive method, which is a simple, short and safe surgical procedure. It is carried out by trained surgeons usually under local anaesthesia after careful counselling and informed consent. Vasectomy is the most effective male family planning method. Involving males in issues of reproductive … Read more

Scrotal Masses

Introduction to Scrotal Masses Scrotal masses are swellings found in the scrotum. Let us abbreviate this condition to SM. Causes of Scrotal Masses The causes of scrotal masses will be discussed under types of SM which are: Causing of painless SM Causes of painful SM 1. Painless Swellings¬† The causes of painless SM include the … Read more

Acute Cystitis

Introduction to Acute Cystitis Acute cystitis is an acute inflammation of the bladder. Women are affected 10 times more than men due to the shortness of their urethra compared to that of men. 40% -50% of all women will develop cystitis in their lifetime. The ascending faecal-perineal-urethral route is the primary mode of infection. Occasionally … Read more

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the presence of micro-organisms in the urine or tissues of the normally sterile genitourinary tract. Infection may be localized to the bladder alone or the kidneys or, in men the prostate. Acute uncomplicated UTI occurs in women with a normal genitourinary tract and usually manifests as acute cystitis (bladder infection … Read more