Plasma Cell Myeloma

Introduction Plasma cell myeloma (previously referred to as multiple myeloma), is cancer affecting the plasma cells in the bone marrow. These abnormal plasma cells occur in increased numbers and produce abnormal non functional immunoglobulins leading to impaired ability to fight infections in the patient affected, hyperviscosity and renal failure. In the bone marrow the increased … Read more

Bleeding disorders

Introduction Bleeding disorders may present at birth or develop later in life. The bleeding may be spontaneous or follow trauma or surgery and may be due to defective blood vessels, platelet disorders or clotting factor deficiency. Past episodes of excessive bleeding e.g. following circumcision, a family history of bleeding and drug therapy may be important … Read more

Multiple Myeloma

Introduction to Multiple Myeloma Multiple Myeloma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells derived from a single clone. The terms multiple myeloma and myeloma may be used interchangeably. The tumour, its product, and the host response to it result in a number of organ dysfunctions and symptoms of bone pain or fracture, renal failure, susceptibility … Read more

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

Introduction to Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease is a group of conditions with pathological processes resulting from the presence of Haemoglobin S Usually inherited from the parents who have themselves inherited haemoglobin S. The principal genotypes include: Homozygous sickle cell disease (SS) Sickle cell-haemoglobin C disease (SC) Sickle cell-B thalassaemia (SB thal) Sickle cell-B+ … Read more


Introduction to Lymphomas Lymphomas are solid neoplasms that originate in lymph nodes or other lymphatic tissues of the body. They’re a heterogeneous group of disorders which can arise at virtually any site. They more often occur in regions with large concentrations of lymphoid tissues, e.g. lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen and bone marrow. Two main groups … Read more


Introduction to Leukemia Leukemia is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by infiltration of the blood, bone marrow and other tissues by neoplastic cells of the haematopoietic system Two main types of Leukemia Myeloid leukaemia Lymphoid leukaemia Each of the types is further divided into acute and chronic. Acute leukaemias are defined pathologically as blast … Read more

Blood Transfusion

Introduction to Blood Transfusion Blood transfusion is the administration of blood for therapy. It is potentially hazardous: blood should be given only if the dangers of not transfusing outweigh those of transfusion. Indication(s) must be clearly established. Transfusion of whole blood or red cell concentrates is important in the treatment of acute blood loss and … Read more


Introduction to Anaemia Anaemia is a reduction in the haemoglobin concentration in the peripheral blood below the normal range expected for the age and sex of an individual. The¬†World Health Organisation (WHO)defines anaemia by the following haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations: Males < 130 g/L (130-175 g/L) or < 13.5 gram/100 ml.) Females < 120 g/L (120-155 … Read more