Haemophilus influenzae type B disease

Introduction The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacterium is an important cause of infections such as acute bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, acute epiglottitis and otitis media in children less than 5 years old. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease infections are preventable by the five-in-one (penta-) vaccine. This infections are not common beyond 5 years of age. … Read more

Lymphatic Filariasis

Introduction Lymphatic filariasis is a disease associated with parasitic infection of one of three different nematodes: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori. The microscopic worms enter the human body through mosquito transmission. After Infection, the worm can live up to 5-7 years in the lymphatic system. The distribution of lymphatic filariasis is linked to … Read more

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Introduction Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus, which infects primarily CD4 T cells (T helper cells). Infection leads to a progressive destruction of the immune system with a consequent myriad of opportunistic infections and the development of certain malignancies. Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is defined as the presence of an AIDS defining illness … Read more


Introduction Malaria is an infectious protozoan disease transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. It is a major public and private health problem and indeed a cause and consequence of national underdevelopment. Five species of the parasite cause the disease in humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale and P.knowlesi Plasmodium falciparum is a … Read more


Introduction Rabies is an acute disease of the CNS caused by a bullet-shaped rhabdovirus that affects all mammals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus found in animals, in all regions as urban rabies or sylvatic rabies. It is transmitted by infected secretions, usually saliva. Most exposures are through bites of an infected animal; occasionally … Read more


Introduction Tetanus is an infection caused by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani. It affects the nerves and causes painful muscle spasms and can lead to death. It is a common, infectious disease affecting individuals of all ages and sexes, particularly the socio-economically deprived. A neurologic disorder characterized by increased muscle tone and spasm that is … Read more

Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)

Introduction Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. It is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. They are transmitted to humans by tsetse fly (Glossina genus) bites which have acquired their infection from human beings or from animals harbouring human pathogenic parasites. Clinical features … Read more

Typhoid Fever

Introduction Typhoid fever is a systemic disease characterized by fever and abdominal pain, caused by dissemination of Salmonella typhi S. paratyphi. It is transmitted only through close contact with acutely infected individuals or chronic carriers (from ingestion of contaminated food or water). Incidence of chronic carriage is higher among women and persons with biliary abnormalities: … Read more

Helminthiasis (Worm infection)

Introduction Parasitic worm infestations can arise from different groups: Nematodes (round worms) Ascaris Ancylostoma (hookworm) Enterobius (pinworm) Trichiuris (whipworm) Cestodes (flat worms/tapeworms) Taenia solium and T. saginata Trematodes (flukes) Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni Round worm infestations are associated with rural living and poor hygiene. It is prevalent among school children and young adults. It … Read more