Envenomation (Scorpion Sting)

Introduction Scorpion stings occur worldwide. Most cases are minor but significant envenomation resulting to death has been reported. Children are particularly at risk of scorpion stings and envenomation Clinical features of scorpion stings and envenomation Local symptom: Localized pains, edema, erythema, paraesthesia, muscle fasciculation and numbness may occur at the site of sting Systemic symptom: … Read more

Envenomation (Snake bites)

Introduction Snake bite is an injury caused by a bite from a snake. This can be life-threatening if the snake is venomou suck as bite from the black mamba, king cobra, banded krait, saw-scaled viper and rattlesnake. In Africa, snake bites often occur among farmers who walk unshod. It occasionally occur around homes when snakes … Read more

Multiple Injuries

Introduction The multiple injured patient is that patient with injury to more than one organ system. They are often victims of motor vehicle crashes, motor bike accidents, pedestrians hit by cars, or falls from heights. Present a challenge to the managing team in terms of priority of medical intervention. If the priorities are not well … Read more

Head Injury

Introduction The term refers to any injury to the head and includes bruises and lacerations to the scalp. For practical purposes it is preferable to talk of: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Craniocerebral injury Craniofaciocerebral injury This section will focus on TBI TBI is common in trauma patients It present in up to 50% of multiply … Read more

Disaster Plan

Introduction A disaster is an event which causes serious disruption to community life, threatens or causes death or injury in that community, and/or damage to property. It is beyond the day-to-day capacity of the prescribed statutory authorities and requires special resources other than those normally available to those authorities. Disaster can arise from natural causes … Read more


Introduction Burns is a common form of trauma in our environment. It involves coagulative necrosis of tissue cells following varied insults including: Flames Chemicals Electricity Friction Cold or hot fluids The various types occur with varying frequencies in various segments of the population. For example scalds occur with great frequency in children while flame burnsĀ  … Read more


Dog bites Dog bites are responsible for 80% of bite wounds Its bacteriology are usually mixed Alpha haemolytic streptococci, pasteurella species, staphylococci, Eikenella chorrodeus, actinomyces, fusobacterium, prevotella, pophyomonas species, Capnocytophaga canimorsus 15-20% of wounds become infected Lower limbs are most commonly affected Infections occur 8 – 24 hours after bite and may manifest as: Pain … Read more