Cervical Cancer

Introduction to Cervical Cancer Cervical Cancer or carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest form of female genital cancer in developing countries. While the disease is preventable, absence of an effective screening system results in most cases presenting late with advanced disease. In developed countries, the incidence of cervical cancer has fallen considerably due to … Read more

Female infertility

Introduction to infertility Primary infertility is said to occur when a couple has never achieved a pregnancy despite at least one year of uninterrupted and adequate unprotected sexual intercourse. Secondary infertility implies that there has been a previous pregnancy. It is often necessary to evaluate both partners simultaneously and to elicit sexual, menstrual and obstetric … Read more

Acute Lower Abdominal Pain

Introduction acute lower abdominal pain Acute lower abdominal pain in a woman may have several causes. These include Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), ruptured ectopic pregnancy and septic abortion. The latter two are surgical emergencies, which require extreme urgency in their management (See  ‘Ectopic Pregnancy‘ and ‘Abortions’). PID is caused by organisms which may be Sexually … Read more

Abnormal Vaginal Discharge

Introduction to abnormal vaginal discharge While a vaginal discharge is a notable clinical feature of a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI), not all forms of vaginal discharge are abnormal or indicative of an STI. Vaginal discharge may be associated with normal physiological changes such as the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Increased discharge may also occur with … Read more

Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding

What is abnormal vaginal bleeding? Abnormal vaginal bleeding (AVB) refers to bleeding which deviates from the normal menstrual pattern (in terms of the amount, duration or interval). Abnormal menstrual patterns and bleeding are common in young adolescents and women within the ages of 45-50 years. No cause may be found on investigation in these age … Read more

Induced (Safe) Abortion

Introduction Induced abortion otherwise known as safe abortion refers to the deliberate termination of pregnancy. Termination of pregnancy is requested for and done for reasons permissible by law either through a surgical procedure or by pharmacological means. In most countries, an induced abortion may be carried out legally only under the following conditions: in case … Read more

Missed Abortion

Introduction Missed abortion refers to foetal death in-utero before 28 weeks gestation. Missed abortion is just one of different types of abortion. Others include complete abortion, septic abortion, safe abortion, missed abortion, inevitable abortion, incomplete abortion, threatened abortion etc. Symptoms of missed abortion The following are the symptoms of missed abortion: There is reversal of the … Read more

Septic Abortion

Introduction Septic abortion is a life threatening complication of abortion. Most often there is a history of criminal interference with the pregnancy. It may lead to complications such as septic shock, uterine damage, peritonitis, haemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute renal failure, adult respiratory distress syndrome, tetanus or gas gangrene. We have different types of … Read more

Complete Abortion

Introduction Abortion is when a pregnancy is ended so that it doesn’t result in the birth of a child. It is also called termination of pregnancy. Abortion is achieved either pharmacologically by the use of drugs or through mechanical means. We have different types of abortion which include complete abortion, septic abortion, safe abortion, missed abortion, … Read more