Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

Introduction Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic drugs. It is characterized by fever, altered mental status, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction. It is mostly is caused by the use of high dose of antipsychotics: potent antipsychotics (e.g. haloperidol) and antipsychotics that are given via the intravenous or intramuscular routes. Diagnostic … Read more


Introduction Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic disorder characterized by multiple impairments in emotional, behavioural, cognitive, social, and occupational domains (among others). It affects about 1% of the population. Onset usually in late adolescence or early adulthood. It has a strong genetic component to its etiology; environmental factors, including pre-natal and obstetric factors, also implicated. Clinical … Read more

Panic disorders

Introduction Panic disorder is a disorder characterized by episodic attacks of extreme fear, mostly unrelated to specific objects or situations. It is associated with multiple somatic and cognitive symptoms. Each attack lasts for about 5-30 minutes and often begins abruptly. It affects about 0.5-1.0% of the population Clinical features A feeling of choking Pounding heart … Read more


Introduction Insomnia is a condition characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep. It may be primary and unrelated to any physical or mental disorder. It may relate to a mental disorder, medical or physical conditions. It may be an adverse effect of medication (or psychoactive substances). It is a common, often chronic problem; … Read more


Introduction Depression is a disorder of mood and affect in which the predominant emotion is sadness/ unhappiness. It can occur alone (unipolar depression) or as part of an alternation disorder in which elevation of mood also occurs (bipolar disorder). It varies in severity from mild to severe. It can be life events, especially those involving … Read more

Delirium tremens

Introduction Delirium is a transient disorder of brain function. It manifests as a global cognitive impairment and behavioural disturbance. It is more common at the extremes of life though it can occur at any age. Incidence up to 15% has been reported among general medical inpatients; up to 40% among acutely ill geriatric patients. Poor … Read more

Bipolar Disorders

Introduction Bipolar Disorders is a type of mood disorder in which there is (typically) alternation of a depressive phase and a manic or hypomanic phase. It experienced by about 1% of the adult population at some point in their lifetime. About equal incidence between males andĀ females. It may be precipitated by psychosocial stress; strong genetic … Read more

Alcoholism (Alcohol Dependence)

Introduction Alcoholism (Alcohol Dependence) is a disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of problems. Central feature is the use of alcohol, which takes an increasingly dominant place in the user’s life in spite of experience of harm related to drinking. Social and genetic factors are thought to be important in pathogenesis. A life time prevalence … Read more