Introduction The bacteria responsible for this diphtheria produces a toxin that damages human body tissues and organs. It commonly affects the tonsils and sometimes the skin causing ulcers. It is spread mainly by respiratory droplets from person to person, and less commonly through skin contact. Infected patients may recover after initial symptoms and signs or … Read more


Introduction Pertussis is a highly contagious bacterial respiratory tract infection common in children and adults. The incubation period is 7-21 days. Complications of Pertussis Complications of Pertussis include: Subconjunctival haemorrhage Otitis media Apnoea Pneumonia Bronchiectasis Activation of latent tuberculosis Dehydration Fever Convulsions Rectal prolapse, and Malnutrition. Patients should be admitted to hospital when complications are … Read more

Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans. It is caused by bacteria of mycotuberculosis complex which includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum. M. tuberculosis is the most common cause of tuberclosis worldwide. Transmission is by droplet infection.¬†Almost every organ can be affected. The lung parenchyma are affected … Read more


Introduction Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma caused by pathogenic microorganism. Various bacterial species, fungi and viruses may cause it. The setting in which infection is acquired could be a predictor of the infecting pathogen. Bacterial Pneumonia: is defined as bacterial infection of the lung parenchyma associated with recently developed radiological shadowing which … Read more

Non-obstructive Chronic Bronchitis (NCB)

Introduction Chronic bronchitis denotes chronic or recurrent bronchial mucus hyper secretion resulting in Chronic expectoration of sputum. For clinical or epidemiological purposes, the term is applied to patients who have coughed up sputum on most days during at least three consecutive months in two successive years. Non-obstructive Chronic bronchitis (NCB) In this condition, there is … Read more


Introduction Dyspnoea is an abnormal and uncomfortable awareness of breathing. Effort of breathing is out of proportion with exertion needs. Patients often have difficulties in describing the discomfort of dyspnoea Clinical features Will depend on the underlying cause(s) of dyspnoea Differential diagnoses Pulmonary: Obstructive airways disease: asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema Parenchymal lung disease: pneumonia, pneumoconiosis, … Read more


Introduction Cough is the explosive expiration that clears the tracheo-bronchial tree of secretions and foreign particles or noxious gaseous materials. It is a defensive reflex reaction. It comes to medical attention only when it becomes troublesome, affects life style and/or when there is concern about its cause. Clinical features Cough may be: Acute or chronic … Read more

Chest Pain

Introduction Chest Pain is a common clinical symptom that may or may not have significant clinical implications. Clinical features (wth differential diagnoses) Sharp, lancinating lateral chest pain, worse with breathing and coughing: pleurisy Dull aching lateral chest pain: chest wall pain, pleural effusion Central chest pain precipitated by a dry harking cough: suggestive of tracheitis … Read more

Lung Abscess

Introduction Lung abscess is defined as necrosis of the lung parenchyma, usually caused by microbial infection, often with an air-fluid level. It may be classified as acute (symptoms < 1month) or chronic (symptoms> 1month). It may also be classified as primary if it occurs in a previously healthy person or in a person prone to … Read more


Introduction Bronchiectasis is an abnormal and permanent dilatation of medium sized airway due to damage of their walls. This usually arises from repeated bacterial or viral infections which result in inflammation and destruction of the structural components of the bronchial tree. It may be focal or diffuse. Bronchiectasis has both congenital or acquired causes. The … Read more