Urinary Schistosomiasis is a common parasitic infection of the urinary tract caused by a body fluke, Schistosoma haematobium.
Infection occurs when your skin comes in contact with contaminated freshwater in which certain types of snails that carry schistosomes are living.
This could occur while swimming, bathing or wading in infected water.
It is endemic in many parts of Africa.
It gets to the urinary tract through the blood vessels after penetrating the skin.
Soon after penetration of the skin:
- Pricking sensation and itching (cercarial dermatitis)
Four weeks later:
- Intermittent fever, malaise, urticaria and cough
Six-24 months later:
- Intermittent, painless terminal haematuria (may be total)
- Symptoms of bladder irritability: dysuria, frequency, urgency, strangury
- Tuberculous cystitis
- Abacterial cystitis
- Bladder carcinoma
- Bladder fibrosis and contracture
- Ureteral stricture
- Urethral stricture
- Bladder calculi
- Bladder cancer
- Urine examination for schistosomal ova
- Cystoscopy: tubercles, sandy
nodules, ulcers patches,
- Plain abdominal radiograph (KUB)
- Intravenous urogram
- Serological tests
- Full Blood Count
- To eradicate the fluke and ova
- Prevent complications
Praziquantel is the schistosomicide with the most attractive combination of effectiveness, broad spectrum activity and low toxicity
- Adult: Single oral dose of 50 mg/kg
- Child over 4 years: 20 mg/kg orally, repeated after 4-6 hours
In S. japonicum infection, 20 mg/kg 3 times daily for one day after initial dose
Notable adverse drug reactions, caution
- Nausea, epigastric pain, pruritus, headache, dizziness
- Provision of and access to pipe-borne water
- Improvement in socio-economic conditions
- Mass chemotherapy in endemic areas
- Eradicating the intermediate hosts (water snails)