Heart Failure In Children

Introduction: Heart failure is a clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body despite adequate atrial filling. Causes Unlike adults, the most common causes of heart failure in children are: Congenital heart diseases (CHDs), Non-cardiac causes including Pneumonia Severe anaemia In neonates, metabolic … Read more

Congenital Heart Disease

Introduction Congenital heart disease is a heart defect that occurs during the formation of the heart in uterus. It could be fatal (i.e. causes intrauterine death, or death at anytime afterwards). It is an important cause of perinatal morbidity/mortality. Classified as Cyanotic Acyanotic Clinical features Will depend on the type of the defect. Mild defects … Read more


Introduction Myocarditis is an acute inflammatory process affecting the myocardium that may occur in association with endocarditis and pericarditis. Possible causes: Infections: viral including HIV, bacterial, protozoa Toxins e.g. scorpion sting Poisons e.g. alcohol Drugs/Allergy e.g. penicillin Deficiencies e.g. thiamine Physical agents e.g. radiation Clinical features Largely asymptomatic A few may present with palpitations; symptoms … Read more

Infective Endocarditis

Introduction Infective endocarditis, also called bacterial endocarditis, is an infection caused by bacteria that enter the bloodstream and settle in the heart lining, a heart valve or a blood vessel. It is a microbial infection of the endocardium and diseased heart valves (rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, shunts, and prosthetic valves). It may be … Read more


Introduction Hypertension is a persistent elevation of the blood pressure above normal values (≥140/90 mmHg) taken 2 to 3 times on at least two different occasions. It is the commonest non-communicable disease in the world. Clinical features Largely asymptomatic until complications arise (“silent killer”) Symptoms and signs of target organ diseases e.g. cardiac failure, stroke … Read more


Introduction Hyperlipidemia can be defined as elevation of serum total cholesterol (TC) and/or triglyceride (TG) or reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol that predisposes to the development of atherosclerosis. Hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for ischemia heart disease Clinical features Patients present with ischaemic heart disease or the underlying cause hyperlipideaemia Signs include xanthomata, xanthelasmata, … Read more

Heart Failure

Introduction to Heart Failure Heart Failure  is a clinical state (syndrome) in which the heart is unable to generate enough cardiac output to meet the metabolic demands of the body or does so at an increased filling pressure. The common causes of Heart failure include hypertension, dilated cardiomyopathy and rheumatic heart disease. Cardiac failure may … Read more

Deep Venous Thrombosis

What is Deep Vein Thrombosis? Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a deep vein. These clots usually develop in the lower leg, thigh, or pelvis, but they can also occur in the arm. It has the potential of being dislodged to the lungs, causing pulmonary … Read more

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Introduction to Acute Coronary Syndrome Spectrum of CAD comprising myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation (STEMI), or without ST segment elevation (NSTEMI) and unstable angina (UA) depending on clinical, ECG and enzyme changes. Guidelines for management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are issued by ACC/AHA and ESC. STEMI: Angina, ST ≥ 1 mm (in ≥ … Read more

Coronary artery disease: Chronic stable angina

Introduction to Chronic Stable Angina Coronary artery disease is a condition due to imbalance in oxygen demand and supply resulting predominantly from atherosclerotic disease of the coronary artery. Its incidence is on the rise worldwide as a result of epidemiologic transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Risk factors for Chronic Stable Angina Diabetes mellitus Hypertension … Read more