Introduction Hyponatraemia is a serum sodium level of less than 135 millimoles per litre. It is condition that occurs when the level of sodium in the blood is too low. Plasma Na‍+ < 135mmol/L = Hyponatraemia Aetiology There are different types of hyponatraemia with varied aetiologies Pseudo-hyponatraemia: With normal plasma osmolality as seen in hyperlipidaemia … Read more


Introduction Hypokalaemia is a condition where there is a low Potassium level in the plasma. It is a plasma potassium less than 3.5 millimoles per Litre. Normal plasma potassium level is any value between 3.5-5 millimoles per litre. Hypokalaemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalised patients; mostly caused by drugs and GI disease. … Read more


Introduction A high concentration of sodium in the blood is known as hypernatraemia. It  is as plasma sodium of more than 145 Millimoles per liter. Majority of cases result from water loss in the absence of sodium loss, when the thirst mechanism is impaired, or (infrequently) due to primary sodium gain Clinical features Mainly neurologic: … Read more


Introduction Hyperkalemia is a condition where the serum or plasma potassium level is above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. Actiology Hyperkalemia usually occurs as a result of potassium release from cells. Decreased renal excretion of K as in renal failure Decreased potassium secretion Impaired sodium reabsorption in … Read more

Drowning and Near-drowning

Introduction Drowning refers to death by suffocation due to immersion in water. It may be classified as “wet”- where the victim has inhaled water or “dry”- a less common condition, but one that involves the closing of the airway due to spasms induced by water Wet drowning could occur by either fresh or salt water. … Read more

Cardiac Arrest

Introduction Cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac pump function. If there is no spontaneous reversal or resuscitatory measure, death results. It is the commonest cause of cardiovascular deaths among Caucasians. It peaks between ages 0 – 6 months and 45 – 75 years Aetiology Myocardial infarction Arrhythmias Drugs and other substances of abuse … Read more

Acute Severe Asthma (Status asthmaticus)

Introduction Acute severe asthma or status asthmaticus is a severe asthma that is unresponsive to repeated courses of standard medication. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate recognition and treatment. Clinical Features Patients with acute severe asthma typically have: The inability to complete a sentence in one breath A respiratory rate of 225 breaths … Read more

Acute Left Ventricular Failure

Introduction Acute left ventricular failure is a sudden diminution in the function of the left ventricle. When this happens, pulmonary capillary and venous pressure increase beyond plasma oncotic pressure. There is resultant accumulation of oedema fluid in the pulmonary interstitial spaces and alveoli. Aetiology Hypertension Myocardial infarction Arhythmias Clinical features Dyspnoea Orthoponea Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea … Read more