Introduction Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted bacterial infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a gram negative aerobic diplococcus. It prefers the columnar epithelium of the urethra, the cervical canal, the rectum and the conjunctivae. The keratinizing epithelium of the adult vagina is quite resistant to N. gonorrhoeae, but that of the pre-pubertal girls, pregnant women and … Read more

Chlamydial Infection

Introduction Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia trachomatis has a number of serovars and causes many different human infections. Eye: trachoma; inclusion conjunctivitis Genital tract: lymphogranuloma venereum, non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis Respiratory tract: pneumonia Chlamydia trachomatis immunotypes D- Kare is isolated in about 50% of cases of … Read more

Chancroid (Ulcus Molle, Soft Chancre)

Introduction Chancroid is an infectious disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, a small gram-negative bacillus. It is common in the tropics, especially in Africa, the Far East, and the Caribbean. Persons may present with chancroid outside endemic regions; sporadic outbreaks of infection occur in Europe and North America. Clinical features Incubation period is about 3-7 days … Read more

Bacterial Vaginosis

Introduction Bacterial Vaginosis is a clinical syndrome resulting from replacement of the normal hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus sp. in the vagina by high concentrations of anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis,  Mycoplasma hominis, and Mobiluncus curtisii. The cause of the microbial alteration is not fully understood. The associated malodour is due to the release of amines … Read more

Nephrotic Syndrome

Introduction Nephrotic Syndrome is a clinical complex characterized by: Proteinuria of 3.5 g per 24 hours Hypoalbuminaemia Generalized oedema Hyperlipidaemia; lipiduria Hypercoagulability Aetiology It is idiopathic in a significant proportion of cases Its known causes include: Inflammatory diseases of the glomeruli (glomerulopathies) Viral infections e.g. Hepatitis B, HIV Immunologic disorders e.g. SLE Allergies: insect bites, … Read more

Chronic Kidney Disease (Ckd)

Introduction: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is defined as a structural and functional abnormality of the kidneys persisting for 3 months or more and manifesting as markers of kidney damage or reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Markers of kidney damage include persistent microalbuminuria or overt albuminuria or haematuria. Structural abnormalities include abnormalities on imaging or … Read more

Acute Kidney Injury

Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a sudden clinical and/or laboratory manifestation of abnormal kidney function occurring within 48 hours or 7 days of kidney injury. There is a reduction in urine output documented as less than 0.5 ml/kg/hour for more than 6 hours. There is also an absolute increase in serum creatinine … Read more