Hyperglycaemia in Children

Introduction Hyperglycaemia is a state of high blood glucose level. A random blood glucose of > 8.0 mmol/1 is hyperglycaemic. Preterm infants particularly when treated with 10% dextrose infusion or total parenteral nutrition are prone to it. Hypothermia, sepsis, post-operative cases, neonatal diabetes (transient or persistent) are also associated. Clinical features Persistent dehydration with glycosuria. … Read more

Hypoglycaemia in Children

Introduction. Hypoglycaemia is an abnormally low level of glucose in the blood (less than 4 millimoles per litre or 40 mg/dl) irrespective of age and gestational age. Most infants with mild to moderate  hypoglycaemia are asymptomatic. Normal glucose utilization rate is 4-6mg/kg/minute but high-risk infants require 6-10mg/kg/minute. In the extreme cases of hyperinsulinism, the infants … Read more

Apnea in Children

Introduction. Apnea is cessation of breath for more than 15 seconds with bradycardia and cyanosis. There may also be hypotonia or pallor in severe cases. It is particularly common among very preterm infants with estimated gestational age of <32 weeks. It may also occur among sick term babies. Prematurity and immaturity of the central respiratory … Read more

Post-resuscitation Care of Asphyxiated Babies

Introduction Clinical manifestations of this case depends on the severity and degree of hypoxic. They include: Ischaemic encephalopathy), inability to cry or suck, global hypotonia and poor activity or global hypertonia with brisk deep tendon reflexes, shock, poor temperature regulation, paralytic ileus, respiratory distress, bleeding tendencies, seizures, oliguria Management Management is largely anticipatory. Serial monitoring … Read more

Pneumonia in Children

Introduction Pneumonia is an acute respiratory infection of the lungs causing inflammation of the lungs air sacs. The air sacs may become filled with fluid or pus. One or both lungs are involved. It can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi. Pneumonia accounts for 15% of all under five deaths (including neonatal death due … Read more

Acute Glomerulonephritis in Children

Introduction Acute glomerulonephritis is defined as inflammation and subsequent damage of the glomeruli leading to hematuria, proteinuria, and azotemia; it may be caused by primary renal disease or systemic conditions. It  is a disorder of structure and or a functional anomaly of an abrupt onset with a tendency to spontaneous recovery It may be acute … Read more

Chronic Renal Failure in Children

Introduction: Chronic renal failure is a situation of an irreversible reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with a prevalence at 18 per million and may be congenital or acquired. KDQI defines chronic kidney disease (CKD) as a kidney damage with GFR of < 60 ml/m2/ 1.73m² for >= 3 months. Whatever is the kidney cause, … Read more

Acute Kidney Injury in Children

Introduction Acute Kidney Injury is a significant cause of morbidity (electrolyte derangements, disordered coagulation and endocrine dysfunction) and mortality in children. It is defined as a sudden, rapid and progressive deterioration in renal function resulting in the inability of the kidneys to perform its homeostatic function. Manifested as a rise in plasma urea, creatinine and … Read more

Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

Definition Nephrotic syndrome is a clinical syndrome characterized by heavy protenuria, hypo albuminemia, oedema, and hyper cholesteronemia. Clinical features Facial oedema Pedal oedema Anasarca, Anuria/oliguria Frothy urine Hypertension in10% of cases Complications Congestive cardiac failure, Pulmonary oedema Spontaneous bacteria peritonitis, Renal vein thrombosis Acute kidney injury, Myocardial infarction. Investigations Urinalysis, 24hour urinary protein, serum protein … Read more

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Children

Introduction A urinary traction infection (UTI) is an infection of the urinary system. It refers to the invasion of urinary tract by pathogenic organisms. It can involve any part of the urinary system, including the urethra, ureters, bladder and kidneys. Symptoms typically include urinary frequency , painful urination and abdominal and flank pains. Urinary tract … Read more