Anaemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

Anaemia develops early in the course of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and is nearly universal in patients with CKD stage 5 (End-stage kidney disease). The prevalence of anaemia at higher levels of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (i.e. CKD stage 1-2) is relatively low in individuals from the general population. Anaemia of CKD is primarily caused … Read more

Acute Glomerulonephritis

Acute glomerulonephritis is a disease characterised by damage to the glomerular filtration apparatus, which causes protein and blood to leak into the urine. Mechanisms for the glomerular damage may be immune-mediated. This condition may be associated with hypertension and fluid retention. Causes of Acute Glomerulonephritis The following are some of the known causes of acute … Read more

Enuresis (Bed Wetting)

Introduction Enuresis is the medical term for bedwetting during sleep. It is not considered abnormal until a child is older and wets the bed consistently (at least twice a week for 3 months or more). Enuresis diagnostic criteria Repeated voiding of urine into bed or clothes (whether involuntary or intentional) Behaviour must be clinically significant … Read more

Urinary Tract Calculi (Stones)

Introduction Calculi (stones) are hard masses that form in the urinary tract and may cause pain, bleeding, or an infection or block of the flow of urine. Calculi can occur in the kidney, ureter, bladder or urethra. Stones are different with respect to their composition: Oxalate stones phosphate stones uric acid stones and cystine stones … Read more

Urinary Schistosomiasis

Introduction Urinary Schistosomiasis is a common parasitic infection of the urinary tract caused by a body fluke, Schistosoma haematobium. Infection occurs when your skin comes in contact with contaminated freshwater in which certain types of snails that carry schistosomes are living. This could occur while swimming, bathing or wading in infected water. It is endemic … Read more

Urethral Stricture

Introduction Urethral Stricture is an abnormal narrowing or loss of distensibility of any part of the urethra, as a result of fibrosis. It is one of the commonest causes of urine retention in tropical Africa. It is very rare in females. It may result from trauma or inflammation; it may equally be iatrogenic. Causes of … Read more

Testicular torsion

Introduction Testicular torsion or torsion of the testis is twisting of the spermatic cord with compromise of the blood supply to the testis. It is an uncommon affliction that is most commonly seen in adolescent males. A few cases occur in infancy. Symptoms and clinical features of torsion of the testis Pain in one testicle: … Read more

The Empty Scrotum

Introduction Empty scrotum is a clinical situation in which the testis is absent from the scrotum. This may be bilateral or unilateral. Causes of empty scrotum These include: Undescended testis Ectopic testis Retractile testis Absent (vanishing) testis Atrophic testis Surgical removal (for treatment of other conditions) 1. Undescended testis Here, the testis is arrested in … Read more


Introduction to Prostatitis Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate or pain in the prostate, similar to that caused by an inflammation. It accounts for 2% of prostatic pathology. Risk factors for Prostatitis Ductile reflux Urinary tract infection Indwelling urethral catheterization Penetrating anal sex Sexually transmitted infections Classification of Prostatitis Prostatitis is classified into: Acute … Read more


Introduction to Priapism Priapism is a persistent penile erection that continues beyond, or is not related to sexual stimulation. Predisposing factors: Thromboembolic disorders e.g. sickle cell disease, leukaemia. Spinal injuries Perineal and genital trauma Drugs e.g. chlorpromazine, prazosin and prostaglandins Clinical features of Priapism Persistent painful erection lasting several hours Penis is rigid and tender … Read more